Quick review of the English grammar.
Verbs[edit | edit source]
There are five kinds of verbs: The action verbs which are transitive or intransitive, and the non-action verbs that are to be, linking, or auxiliary.
Action verbs are actions that can be taken. Examples include walk, study, laugh. Action verbs are either
- transitive or
Transitive verbs act on an object while intransitive verbs do not. Eg. I walked to the beach uses walk as a transitive verb. I laughed uses laugh as an intransitive verb.
Non-action verbs are classified as one of:
- the verb to be,
- linking verbs, or
- an auxiliary or helping) verbs.
The to be verb is typically used to define something about the subject. Eg. The apple is red, where is is conjugated from the to be verb.
A Linking verb links (or shows the relationship between) the main noun (subject) to an adjective. Eg. The apple appears rotten, where appears links the apple to the adjective rotten. Examples of linking verbs include appear, become, feel, grow, look, seem, sound. To test whether a verb is a linking verb, replace the verb in question with a form of to be. If the sentence still makes sense, the verb is a linking verb.
Auxiliary or helping verbs preceeds the main verb in a sentence. Main helping verbs are to be, to have, and to do. Eg. I am watching you, I have programmed that, I do not like running. Notice that the main verb watching, programmed, and running are preceded by another helping verb.
Mood[edit | edit source]
There are a few moods:
- indicative (fact of reality)
- imperative (command)
- interrogative (question)
- conditional (causes something to happen)
- subjunctive (statement contrary to reality)
Tense[edit | edit source]
A verb tense shows time and there are six possible times:
|Simple present||he talks|
|Simple past||past action that has completed||he talked
He worked for this company for 30 years.
|Present perfect||past action that extends to the present, or result is ongoing. Present perfect uses a past participle, a helper 'have' or 'has' with the main verb.||he has talked
He has worked for this company for 30 years.
|Past perfect||past action completed before another action. Make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. Formed with verb have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.||they had talked
He gave blankets he had made to charity.
|Future -||they will talk|
|Future perfect||action that will have been completed in the future by some future time.||they will have talked
By the end of next week, I will have completed the report.
There are also progressive and continuous tenses. English does not distinguish the two and is generally used interchangeably but there can be a slight shade of difference in meaning which can be hinted at. In general, progressive implies the action is in progress at the moment whereas continuous is the action that has started previously and is currently ongoing.
|Present progressive||often implies a process, or something in progress at a particular time||She is driving too fast around that corner.|
|past progressive||action from a specific time in the past that is continuing, or that something took place while something else was happening, or something did not complete, or criticize something that happens periodically.||she was rewriting the report all day yesterday
while I was reading a book, the cat was scratching the sofa.
I was painting the fence when I had to go
He was always arriving late to work on Mondays.
|future progressive||shows action will be in progress at some time in the future||at 9AM tomorrow, I will be attending a meeting|
|present continuous||something that his happening at this precise moment, or something that has already been planned||you are reading this sentence.
you are going to dinner this evening.
|past continuous||something that happened in the past and is still happening, action is not completed||I was going to complete the report but i decided to leave|
|future continuous||continued or an ongoing future in the future. Eg. project our self in the future||this time tomorrow, I will be working.|
In general, most grammar books will not distinguish progressive and continuous tenses.
Irregular verbs are those that do not conjugate normally. Examples are ring/rang, think/thought.
Conjunctions[edit | edit source]
coordinating[edit | edit source]
Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, dependent clauses, or independent clauses as equals
The FANBOYS acronym.
- For - a reason (because)
- And - sequence, cause & effect (but), contrast, unexpected result (yet)
- Nor - negative connection, part of correlative neither...nor...
- But - contrast, except
- Or - link, stress, counter previous statement
- Yet - addition, stronger form of but, combined with and
- So - connect independent clauses, cause & effect (therefore), as well / in addition
subordinating[edit | edit source]
a white bus
offer a transition and show relationships. time , place, cause effect
- as if - how something is done
- even though
- even if
Creates a dependent clause
correlative[edit | edit source]
Correlative deals with pairs. Unlike coordinating, correlative is used to emphasize something.
both ... and not only ... but also not ... but either ... or neither ... nor
Keep in mind plurality on the verb. The word closest to the verb determines singular or plural. neither the dog nor the cats were in the yard. neither the cats nor the dog was in the yard.
When using correlative conjunctions, the two items should be parallel. Eg. Either wait or call: 'We can either wait for Jon to arrive or call a cab.' Not 'Either wait or call: We can either wait for Jon to arrive or we can call a cab.'
Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- demonstrative: those, these, this, that. Used as pronouns or as adjectives
- interrogative: which one
- indefinite: some, somebody, each
- reciprocal: each other
- relative: who, which that
- reflexive and intensive: myself
Common issues are with agreement of number. Both the pronoun and its antecedent must be either singular or plural. Indefinite pronouns are singular: somebody, everybody, anybody. Sentences like "Everyone should sign their name on the list" is incorrect since everyone is singular and their is plural. To fix, either:
- remove the pronoun: Everyone should sign the list
- Replace 'everyone' with a plural pronoun: All attendees should sign the list
- Or cumbersome: Everyone should sign his/her name on the list
Use the subjective case when the pronoun is used as a subject. Use the objective case when the pronoun is the object of a preposition.
|Josh and he are on the committee||Josh said she would send an email to Alice and him|
Pronouns must be specific.
- "It has been found that..." in most cases can be removed completely since 'it' refers to nothing.
- "whether ..., it ..." the 'it' also refers to nothing and can be removed.
Anticipatory reference refers to pronouns that occur before the subject, and should be avoided whenever possible.
- "If they arrive today, please tell me when I can open the supplies". (Dubious sentence since 'they' might not necessarily refer to supplies)
Who/Whom/That That refers to things and never people. Only Who/Whom can refer to people.
- "Employees that are late will be terminated" should be "Employees who are late will be terminated"
Who is used as the subject; Whom refers to the person as the object.
To is a preposition and prepositions take objects. Always say "To whom" and not "to who".
Adjectives and Adverbs[edit | edit source]
An adjective describes a noun. An adverb modifies and adjective or another adverb. Eg: He ran really fast. (ran = verb, really = adverb modifying fast, fast = adjective on run)
Adverbs typically end with -ly (Eg. slowly, quickly). Exceptions to this rule are typically flat adverbs such as soon, fast, now, not, deep, short. There are also other words ending in -ly that are both adjectives and adverbs (Eg. friendly, lovely).
Flat adverbs have the same form as a related adjective. It is similar to a normal adverb without the -ly. Eg. slowly in Drive slow.
An adverb clause always happens after a subordinating conjunction. Eg. The computer booted up so quick with the new SSD..
A conjunctive adverb (also known as adverbial conjunction) is a type of adverb that joins together two independent clauses or complete sentences. It is used to transition and show the relationship between two clauses.
|current time||now, meanwhile, henceforth, elsewhere|
|show cause & effect||therefore, hence, then|
|contrast||however, in contrast, yet, conversely|
|add to||furthermore , additionally, moreover|
|result of||accordingly, incidentally, namely|
|sequence of events||subsequently, finally, thus|
Do not confuse adjectives with adverbs.
- Bad vs. badly. Bad is an adjective, badly is the adverb.
- Good vs. Well. Good is an adjective, well is an adverb.
Some adjectives have different meanings depending on usage. Be mindful and use the appropriate adjective.
- Little vs. a little. Little refers to size. A little refers to something positive
- Much vs. Many: Much is used for singular or collective nouns. Many is used with plural nouns.
Prepositions[edit | edit source]
A preposition is used to indicate either:
- A location. Eg. in, near, beside, on top of
- or a relationship between the subject a noun or pronoun (subject) and other parts of the sentence. Eg. about, after, besides, instead of, in accordance with.
When writing, avoid:
- Idioms or 'slangy' language when writing. Eg. Don't miss out on ...
- Hanging prepositions. Eg. Where are you going to? What did you do that for? Where are we eating at?
Some common misused prepositions and their associated meanings:
|Sentence with questionable preposition||Preposition meaning|
|Do you want me to wait [on / for] you?||
for = you are waiting for me to arrive
on = you are waiting on me to bring something for you
|on to vs. onto||
onto = on top of, to position upon
on to = when part of a verb phrase (log on to, held on to).
|differ [with / from] me||
differ with me = disagree on something
differ from me = appearance is different
|different [from / than]||Always differ from and never different than. British may say different to.|
|divided [among / between]||between = between two
among = more than two
|into/in||into for movement. Eg. unloaded into the water.
in for location. Eg. boat is in the water.
|like vs. as||like = similarities between two items
as = describes how something functions
|about vs on||about = routine, ordinary. Eg: discussion about ...
on = serious, academic. Eg: lecture on ...
Punctuation[edit | edit source]
A semicolon unites two highly related but independent sentences. The thoughts preceding and following the semicolon must each be grammatically complete sentences. Semicolons should be followed by a lower case letter. Eg:
- I work in two buildings; the Smart building, and at Foothills campus.
- Fred called in sick; I hope he gets better soon.
rebooton the system; don't run this if others are logged in.
Avoid using semicolons for embedded lists; use commas as a separator unless list items also contains commas.
Colon provides a pause before introducing related information. Common uses are:
- Introduce a list. Do not use a colon after a verb or preposition.
- It can be used to show the previous idea will be further explained, clarified, or restated.
Sentences[edit | edit source]
Voice[edit | edit source]
Sentences employ either:
- Active voice, an actor acts on the target and follows the syntax: subject + verb + target. Eg. The cat scratched the post.. Imperative (ie. commands) verbs are also in active voice because the subject is typically you. Eg. Sit down! Open the window.
- Passive voice, where the syntax is the reverse of active voice: target + verb + subject. Eg. The post was scratched by the cat. A feature of passive voice is that the subject can be omitted. Eg. The post was scratched. (The subject is ambiguous).
Typically, sentences written in active voice is easier to read and understand because readers typically convert passive voice to active voice. Passive voice also turns sentences on their heads and obfuscates the intention or ideas of the sentence. For technical writing, try to always use active voice for clarity.
Passive voice sentences require the use of a passive verb. A passive verb is formed with a form of to be (is/are, was/were) followed by the past participle of the verb (irregular verbs aside, this is the -ed of the verb). Eg. scratched becomes either is/was scratched, or was/were scratched.
Tips[edit | edit source]
- Use strong verbs in sentences and avoid weak or imprecise terms such as forms of to be, have, occur, happen.
- Do not start sentences with there is/are. Sentences that do this use a generic subject there. Try to replace this with a more meaningful subject.
- Each sentence should focus on a single idea, thought, or concept. Sentences with many nonessential subordinate clauses should be separated. Nonessential subordinate clauses convey information not immediately important to the main idea of the sentence. Subordinate clauses typically start with words which, that, because, whose, until, unless, since, etc.
- Eliminate or reduce extraneous words. Eg. is able to to can, determine the location of to find, at this point in time to now.
Paragraphs[edit | edit source]
Paragraphs are group of sentences that focus on a single topic with the sole purpose of answering the following main questions:
- What are you trying to tell your reader?
- Why is this important?
- How should the reader use this knowledge or supporting reasons on why they should believe you.
The opening sentence should set up the theme for the paragraph. It should explain what the paragraph will try to convey. Subsequent sentences that do not relate to the topic outlined in the opening sentence should be edited out or made relevant to the topic.
Errors[edit | edit source]
Misused Words[edit | edit source]
Irony: The result of something that you did or some situation which was the opposite result of what was intended.
Misfit Grammar[edit | edit source]
- Split infinitive. Don't split a verb with an adverb (to walk quickly is fine, not to quickly walk).
- "Try and" is wrong, use "Try to"
- Repetitive subjects "The engineers, they submitted the plan"
- "Hopefully, ... " is [controversial https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disjunct_%28linguistics%29]. This is technically a disjunct (where an adverb starts a sentence). This usage has been accepted by oxford, but the proper use should be "I am hopeful..." or "I hope..."
See Also[edit | edit source]